We have examined 26 human AIDS brains obtained at post mortem for infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and for dual infection of cells by both viruses. The techniques used were enzyme-linked immunocytochemistry for HCMV and in situ hybridisation using a cDNA probe for HIV. Using these techniques, HCMV infection was detected in 14 brains, HIV infection in 14 brains, and coinfection with HIV and HCMV in 7 brains. Four caes of dual HIV/HCMV infection were found where no colocalisation could be detected. In randomly chosen dually infected areas 19.2% of infected cells were coinfected with both viruses. Although cells identified morphologically as macrophages were the most common infected cell type, astrocytes and neurons were both singly and doubly infected with HIV and HCMV. Complete clinical data were available for 4 of the 7 cases with coinfection and each had AIDS dementia complex.
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