Clinical profile of hereditary angioedema from a tertiary care centre in India

Susmitha Perumalla, Lydia Mathew, John Mathew, P. Naina, A. J. Joseph, John Antony Jude Prakash*, Dincy Peter

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a clinical condition which could be fatal if not identified and managed appropriately. Knowledge of this condition is mostly confined to individual case reports and literature reviews in India. In this retrospective study we describe HAE cases which presented to a tertiary care centre in India over a period of three and half years. Materials and methods: Clinical case records of forty-two HAE patients diagnosed based on clinical and laboratory features were accessed after due approval from the Ethics committee. C1 esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) and C4 levels were measured using nephelometry. All relevant data was entered into Microsoft EXCEL worksheet and analysed using simple statistical tools. Results: Among the 42 patients diagnosed as having HAE, 37 had low C1INH levels and were diagnosed to have type 1 HAE. The remaining 5 had normal C1 INH levels and were considered probable HAE based on family history and response to HAE specific treatment. The median age of onset of symptoms was 15 years (range 5–49) and median age at diagnosis, 27.5 years (range 5–55). The median delay in diagnosis was 10 years (range 1–27 years). Family history of HAE was observed in 52.6% and 29% reported deaths in the family with HAE like disease. Low dose androgens or tranexamic acid or both were prescribed in 64.2% of the patients. Orofacial edema was the commonest clinical presentation (76%) followed by edema of the extremities (38%), GI tract symptoms (19%) and genital involvement (11.9%). Conclusion: Many cases of HAE may be going undetected in India. There is a need for clinical awareness and laboratory means to accurately identify and administer appropriate treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)509-512
Number of pages4
JournalIndian Journal of Medical Microbiology
Volume39
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 1 2021
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • C1 esterase inhibitor deficiency
  • C1 INH
  • Diagnosis
  • Hereditary angioedema
  • Nephelometry

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)

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