Clinical course of ophthalmic findings and potential influence factors of herpesvirus infections: 18 month follow-up of a closed herd of lipizzaners

James O. Rushton, Jolanta Kolodziejek, Alexander Tichy, Norbert Nowotny, Barbara Nell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: To date the influence of herpesviruses on the development of equine ocular diseases has not been clearly determined. Objective: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the course of equine ocular findings over a period of 18 months at 6 month intervals, in correlation with the results of herpesvirus detection. Methods: 266 Lipizzaners in 3 federal states of Austria underwent complete ophthalmologic examination 4 times. Blood samples, nasal- and conjunctival swabs were obtained at the same time and used for the detection of the equid gammaherpesviruses EHV-2 and EHV-5 using consensus herpesvirus PCR and type-specific qPCRs. Ophthalmic findings and results of herpesvirus PCRs were recorded and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA, and multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the influence of herpesvirus infections and other contributing factors on the presence of ophthalmic findings. Results: In the first, second, third and fourth examination period 266, 261, 249 and 230 horses were included, respectively. Ophthalmic findings consistent with herpesvirus infections included conjunctival- and corneal pathologies. Statistical analysis revealed that the probability of positive herpesvirus PCR results decreased with progressing age; however the presence of corneal findings increased over time. At the time of each examination 45.1%, 41.8%, 43.0%, and 57.0% of horses with conjunctival or corneal findings, respectively, were positive for EHV-2 and/or EHV-5. However, 31.6%, 17.6%, 20.1%, and 13.0% of clinically sound horses were positive for these herpesviruses at each examination period, too. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study there is a significant influence of young age on EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 infection. Corneal pathologies increased over time and with progressing age. Whether the identified findings were caused by herpesviruses could not be unequivocally determined.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere79888
JournalPLoS One
Volume8
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 20 2013

Fingerprint

Herpesviridae Infections
Herpesviridae
Pathology
disease course
Equid herpesvirus 5
Equid herpesvirus 2
eyes
herds
horses
Horses
Analysis of variance (ANOVA)
Regression analysis
Logistics
Statistical methods
Blood
Acoustic waves
Polymerase Chain Reaction
eye diseases
Horse Diseases
Austria

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Clinical course of ophthalmic findings and potential influence factors of herpesvirus infections : 18 month follow-up of a closed herd of lipizzaners. / Rushton, James O.; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Tichy, Alexander; Nowotny, Norbert; Nell, Barbara.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 8, No. 11, e79888, 20.11.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{b042ae99c65048d98982ee776bf89495,
title = "Clinical course of ophthalmic findings and potential influence factors of herpesvirus infections: 18 month follow-up of a closed herd of lipizzaners",
abstract = "Background: To date the influence of herpesviruses on the development of equine ocular diseases has not been clearly determined. Objective: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the course of equine ocular findings over a period of 18 months at 6 month intervals, in correlation with the results of herpesvirus detection. Methods: 266 Lipizzaners in 3 federal states of Austria underwent complete ophthalmologic examination 4 times. Blood samples, nasal- and conjunctival swabs were obtained at the same time and used for the detection of the equid gammaherpesviruses EHV-2 and EHV-5 using consensus herpesvirus PCR and type-specific qPCRs. Ophthalmic findings and results of herpesvirus PCRs were recorded and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA, and multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the influence of herpesvirus infections and other contributing factors on the presence of ophthalmic findings. Results: In the first, second, third and fourth examination period 266, 261, 249 and 230 horses were included, respectively. Ophthalmic findings consistent with herpesvirus infections included conjunctival- and corneal pathologies. Statistical analysis revealed that the probability of positive herpesvirus PCR results decreased with progressing age; however the presence of corneal findings increased over time. At the time of each examination 45.1{\%}, 41.8{\%}, 43.0{\%}, and 57.0{\%} of horses with conjunctival or corneal findings, respectively, were positive for EHV-2 and/or EHV-5. However, 31.6{\%}, 17.6{\%}, 20.1{\%}, and 13.0{\%} of clinically sound horses were positive for these herpesviruses at each examination period, too. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study there is a significant influence of young age on EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 infection. Corneal pathologies increased over time and with progressing age. Whether the identified findings were caused by herpesviruses could not be unequivocally determined.",
author = "Rushton, {James O.} and Jolanta Kolodziejek and Alexander Tichy and Norbert Nowotny and Barbara Nell",
year = "2013",
month = "11",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0079888",
language = "English",
volume = "8",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "11",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Clinical course of ophthalmic findings and potential influence factors of herpesvirus infections

T2 - 18 month follow-up of a closed herd of lipizzaners

AU - Rushton, James O.

AU - Kolodziejek, Jolanta

AU - Tichy, Alexander

AU - Nowotny, Norbert

AU - Nell, Barbara

PY - 2013/11/20

Y1 - 2013/11/20

N2 - Background: To date the influence of herpesviruses on the development of equine ocular diseases has not been clearly determined. Objective: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the course of equine ocular findings over a period of 18 months at 6 month intervals, in correlation with the results of herpesvirus detection. Methods: 266 Lipizzaners in 3 federal states of Austria underwent complete ophthalmologic examination 4 times. Blood samples, nasal- and conjunctival swabs were obtained at the same time and used for the detection of the equid gammaherpesviruses EHV-2 and EHV-5 using consensus herpesvirus PCR and type-specific qPCRs. Ophthalmic findings and results of herpesvirus PCRs were recorded and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA, and multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the influence of herpesvirus infections and other contributing factors on the presence of ophthalmic findings. Results: In the first, second, third and fourth examination period 266, 261, 249 and 230 horses were included, respectively. Ophthalmic findings consistent with herpesvirus infections included conjunctival- and corneal pathologies. Statistical analysis revealed that the probability of positive herpesvirus PCR results decreased with progressing age; however the presence of corneal findings increased over time. At the time of each examination 45.1%, 41.8%, 43.0%, and 57.0% of horses with conjunctival or corneal findings, respectively, were positive for EHV-2 and/or EHV-5. However, 31.6%, 17.6%, 20.1%, and 13.0% of clinically sound horses were positive for these herpesviruses at each examination period, too. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study there is a significant influence of young age on EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 infection. Corneal pathologies increased over time and with progressing age. Whether the identified findings were caused by herpesviruses could not be unequivocally determined.

AB - Background: To date the influence of herpesviruses on the development of equine ocular diseases has not been clearly determined. Objective: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the course of equine ocular findings over a period of 18 months at 6 month intervals, in correlation with the results of herpesvirus detection. Methods: 266 Lipizzaners in 3 federal states of Austria underwent complete ophthalmologic examination 4 times. Blood samples, nasal- and conjunctival swabs were obtained at the same time and used for the detection of the equid gammaherpesviruses EHV-2 and EHV-5 using consensus herpesvirus PCR and type-specific qPCRs. Ophthalmic findings and results of herpesvirus PCRs were recorded and statistically analysed using one-way ANOVA, and multiple logistic regression analysis to determine the influence of herpesvirus infections and other contributing factors on the presence of ophthalmic findings. Results: In the first, second, third and fourth examination period 266, 261, 249 and 230 horses were included, respectively. Ophthalmic findings consistent with herpesvirus infections included conjunctival- and corneal pathologies. Statistical analysis revealed that the probability of positive herpesvirus PCR results decreased with progressing age; however the presence of corneal findings increased over time. At the time of each examination 45.1%, 41.8%, 43.0%, and 57.0% of horses with conjunctival or corneal findings, respectively, were positive for EHV-2 and/or EHV-5. However, 31.6%, 17.6%, 20.1%, and 13.0% of clinically sound horses were positive for these herpesviruses at each examination period, too. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study there is a significant influence of young age on EHV-2 and/or EHV-5 infection. Corneal pathologies increased over time and with progressing age. Whether the identified findings were caused by herpesviruses could not be unequivocally determined.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84894235401&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84894235401&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0079888

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0079888

M3 - Article

C2 - 24278206

AN - SCOPUS:84894235401

VL - 8

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

IS - 11

M1 - e79888

ER -