Cleaner fuel production from waste Phoenix dactylifera L. kernel oil in the presence of a bimetallic catalyst: Optimization and kinetics study

Ala'a H. Al-Muhtaseb, Farrukh Jamil, Myo Tay Zar Myint, Mahad Baawain, Mohammed Al-Abri, Thi Ngoc Bao Dung, Gopalakrishnan Kumar, Mohammad N.M. Ahmad

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)


The focus of the present study is to produce biodiesel from non-edible waste Phoenix dactylifera L. kernel biomass feedstock in presence of a newly synthesized bimetallic heterogeneous catalyst (Mn-MgO-ZrO2). Biodiesel production was optimized based on several process parameters such as; temperature (60–100 °C), reaction time (1–5 h), catalyst loading (1.5–7.5 wt%) and solvent to oil ratio (7.5–37.5). Furthermore, experimental plan based on selected ranges of process variables was developed by response surface methodology (RSM) towards optimizing biodiesel yield. The optimized biodiesel yield was 96.4% at process temperature of 90 °C, reaction time 4 h, catalyst loading 3 wt% and methanol to oil ratio 15. Based on the quadratic model, predicted by RSM, process temperature was rendered as the most influencing parameter among other parameters studied. Kinetic study was also performed to determine the reaction rate constants and the activation energy for the process, which was found to be 37.55 kJ/mol; with pseudo first order reaction. Moreover, the fuel properties determined for produced biodiesel showed a good agreement with the international standards of ASTM and EN.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)195-204
Number of pages10
JournalEnergy Conversion and Management
Publication statusPublished - Aug 15 2017



  • Bimetallic heterogeneous catalyst
  • Biodiesel
  • Kinetics
  • Optimization
  • Waste Phoenix dactylifera L. kernel biomass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering
  • Fuel Technology
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology

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