Chasing Jenner's vaccine

Revisiting Cowpox virus classification

Darin S. Carroll, Ginny L. Emerson, Yu Li, Scott Sammons, Victoria Olson, Michael Frace, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Claus Peter Czerny, Morten Tryland, Jolanta Kolodziejek, Norbert Nowotny, Melissa Olsen-Rasmussen, Marina Khristova, Dhwani Govil, Kevin Karem, Inger K. Damon, Hermann Meyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

66 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Cowpox virus (CPXV) is described as the source of the first vaccine used to prevent the onset and spread of an infectious disease. It is one of the earliest described members of the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes the viruses that cause smallpox and monkeypox in humans. Both the historic and current literature describe "cowpox" as a disease with a single etiologic agent. Genotypic data presented herein indicate that CPXV is not a single species, but a composite of several (up to 5) species that can infect cows, humans, and other animals. The practice of naming agents after the host in which the resultant disease manifests obfuscates the true taxonomic relationships of "cowpox" isolates. These data support the elevation of as many as four new species within the traditional "cowpox" group and suggest that both wild and modern vaccine strains of Vaccinia virus are most closely related to CPXV of continental Europe rather than the United Kingdom, the homeland of the vaccine.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere23086
JournalPLoS One
Volume6
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011

Fingerprint

Cowpox
Cowpox virus
Viruses
Vaccines
vaccines
taxonomy
Monkeypox virus
Variola virus
Orthopoxvirus
Vaccinia virus
infectious diseases
United Kingdom
Communicable Diseases
cows
new species
Animals
animals
Composite materials

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Carroll, D. S., Emerson, G. L., Li, Y., Sammons, S., Olson, V., Frace, M., ... Meyer, H. (2011). Chasing Jenner's vaccine: Revisiting Cowpox virus classification. PLoS One, 6(8), [e23086]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023086

Chasing Jenner's vaccine : Revisiting Cowpox virus classification. / Carroll, Darin S.; Emerson, Ginny L.; Li, Yu; Sammons, Scott; Olson, Victoria; Frace, Michael; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Czerny, Claus Peter; Tryland, Morten; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Nowotny, Norbert; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa; Khristova, Marina; Govil, Dhwani; Karem, Kevin; Damon, Inger K.; Meyer, Hermann.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 6, No. 8, e23086, 2011.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Carroll, DS, Emerson, GL, Li, Y, Sammons, S, Olson, V, Frace, M, Nakazawa, Y, Czerny, CP, Tryland, M, Kolodziejek, J, Nowotny, N, Olsen-Rasmussen, M, Khristova, M, Govil, D, Karem, K, Damon, IK & Meyer, H 2011, 'Chasing Jenner's vaccine: Revisiting Cowpox virus classification', PLoS One, vol. 6, no. 8, e23086. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023086
Carroll DS, Emerson GL, Li Y, Sammons S, Olson V, Frace M et al. Chasing Jenner's vaccine: Revisiting Cowpox virus classification. PLoS One. 2011;6(8). e23086. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023086
Carroll, Darin S. ; Emerson, Ginny L. ; Li, Yu ; Sammons, Scott ; Olson, Victoria ; Frace, Michael ; Nakazawa, Yoshinori ; Czerny, Claus Peter ; Tryland, Morten ; Kolodziejek, Jolanta ; Nowotny, Norbert ; Olsen-Rasmussen, Melissa ; Khristova, Marina ; Govil, Dhwani ; Karem, Kevin ; Damon, Inger K. ; Meyer, Hermann. / Chasing Jenner's vaccine : Revisiting Cowpox virus classification. In: PLoS One. 2011 ; Vol. 6, No. 8.
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