Characterization of industrial wastewater sludge in Oman from three different regions and recommendations for alternate reuse applications

Mahad S. Baawain*, Mohsin Al-Jabri, B. S. Choudri

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (SciVal)


Background: Domestic and industrial wastewaters are mostly treated by biological process such as activated sludge, aerobic pond, and anaerobic treatment. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of sewage sludge in the Sultanate of Oman chosen from three industrial sewage treatment plants (STPs): Rusayl Industrial Estate (RSL.IE); Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE); and Raysut Industrial Estate (RIE). Methods: Samples of recycled activated sludge (RAS) and wasted activated sludge (WAS) were collected over a period of 12 months across above mentioned STPs. Parameters analyzed are electrical conductivity (EC), potential of hydrogen (pH), cations, anions and volatile content (VC). Results: The obtained values for pH and EC were low for both RAS and WAS samples, except EC values of RIE that was more than 1000 μS/cm. The range of VC percentages in RAS and WAS samples were 44 to 86% and 41 to 77%, respectively. The measured values for chloride, sulfate, nitrate and phosphate were higher than the other anions. Conclusion: The average values of the cations in RAS and WAS samples were within the Omani Standards, suitable for the re-use of sludge in agriculture except for Cd in RSL.IE. The study recommends that a regular maintenance should be performed at the studied STPs to prevent any accumulation of some harmful substances, which may affect the sludge quality, and the sludge drying beds should be large enough to handle the produced sludge for better management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1473-1481
Number of pages9
JournalIranian Journal of Public Health
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2015


  • Analysis
  • Characterization
  • Heavy metals
  • Industrial wastewater sludge
  • Physicochemical
  • Sultanate of Oman

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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