Characterization of domestic wastewater treatment in Oman from three different regions and current implications of treated effluents

Mahad S. Baawain, Abdulrahim Al-Omairi, B. S. Choudri

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2701-2716
Number of pages16
JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
Volume186
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Sewage treatment plants
sewage treatment
Wastewater treatment
Effluents
effluent
Wastewater
Sewage
wastewater
sewage
Nitrates
nitrate
Chemical oxygen demand
biochemical oxygen demand
Irrigation
chemical oxygen demand
Escherichia coli
Heavy metals
electrical conductivity
Potassium
Ammonia

Keywords

  • Characterization
  • Effluents
  • Microbiological
  • Oman
  • Physicochemical
  • Wastewater

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Pollution

Cite this

@article{0df49c0eca9f44878a963b5d8f710bb8,
title = "Characterization of domestic wastewater treatment in Oman from three different regions and current implications of treated effluents",
abstract = "Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman.",
keywords = "Characterization, Effluents, Microbiological, Oman, Physicochemical, Wastewater",
author = "Baawain, {Mahad S.} and Abdulrahim Al-Omairi and Choudri, {B. S.}",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1007/s10661-013-3572-x",
language = "English",
volume = "186",
pages = "2701--2716",
journal = "Environmental Monitoring and Assessment",
issn = "0167-6369",
publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterization of domestic wastewater treatment in Oman from three different regions and current implications of treated effluents

AU - Baawain, Mahad S.

AU - Al-Omairi, Abdulrahim

AU - Choudri, B. S.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman.

AB - Treated effluents become one of the most significant sources for irrigation and other activities in arid and semi arid countries such as Oman. This study focuses on characterizing the quality of domestic wastewater in chosen three regions: Muscat, Sohar, and Salalah. The knowledge on treatment processes, quality, and proper management of domestic wastewater reuse for various purposes is essential. Wastewater samples were collected from six different sewage treatment plants (STPs) over a period of 1 year in 2009 on a monthly basis. The raw sewage (RS) and treated effluent (TEs) samples were collected from different sampling points in each STP. Both types of samples were analyzed for physicochemical and microbiological assessment. All tests were conducted according to the standard method for the examination of water and wastewater. The results revealed that the TEs electrical conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, heavy metals, sodium, potassium, and total dissolved solids values were found within Omani Standards (OS). The RS in all STPs was categorized as high strength concentration and samples exceeded the acceptable range for ammonia in most of the selected plants except Sohar and Salalah. Nitrate values in RS were also observed in higher concentrations. In general, the produced TEs have met most of regulatory limits stated by OS except for nitrate, Escherichia coli and total suspended solids (TSS). Furthermore, it should be noted that the performance of Salalah and Darsayt STPs can be classified as the best compared to the other four STPs studied in Oman.

KW - Characterization

KW - Effluents

KW - Microbiological

KW - Oman

KW - Physicochemical

KW - Wastewater

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84898852371&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84898852371&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10661-013-3572-x

DO - 10.1007/s10661-013-3572-x

M3 - Article

VL - 186

SP - 2701

EP - 2716

JO - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

JF - Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

SN - 0167-6369

IS - 5

ER -