This book chapter discusses the syntheses of various nanomaterials, for green nanotechnology applications in detail. Special attention is given to the development of emerging areas, such as environmental as well as energy materials. Various approaches for preparing nanostructured photocatalysts, such as titanium dioxide, zinc oxide, iron oxide, and metal sulfides, different conventional methods and novel methods, including sol-gel methods, hydrothermal methods, microwave-assisted methods and sonochemical methods are introduced. The use of nanomaterials as photocatalysts, supporting materials for solar cells, and disinfectants is reported for environmental remediation and energy applications. Advanced applications of nanomaterials for water detoxification, air purification, and the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms in water as well as dye-sensitized solar cells is also discussed. The enhancement of selectivity of photocatalysis, especially TiO2 systems, for the destruction of target contaminants in water is comprehensively presented. Finally, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as hydroxyl radical (•OH), superoxide anion radical (O2•-), singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), in semiconductor photocatalysis is introduced and various experimental techniques to detect ROS are also discussed.