Boron and the alternate-bearing phenomenon in the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)

A. E. Pillay, J. R. Williams, M. O. El Mardi, S. M. Hassan, A. Al-Hamdi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The distribution of boron (B), in date palms is an area that has not been widely explored and is of considerable interest to environmental science. Boron is known as an essential micronutrient, and of all the metalloids, plays a particularly significant role in plant studies. The thrust of this work, therefore, involved measurement, by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), of boron in dates and corresponding leaf and soil specimens, and evaluation of its toxicity and deficiency during the developmental stages of the fruiting season. Thirty-six date samples and 36 leaf specimens of the Fard cultivar; and 36 corresponding soil samples were collected during the Kimri, Bisir and Rutab stages of the fruiting season and subjected to suitable digestion procedures. Sample masses of typically 1 g (dry weight) were prepared in 25 mL dilute acid solution and investigated for trace levels of boron. Variations in boron concentration were observed in all the analysed samples and studied as a function of the phases of the fruit-bearing season. The boron levels were typically between 3 and 8 mg kg-1 in soil specimens, and 1-6 mg kg-1 in fruits and leaves. A connection was sought to the alternate-bearing phenomenon by examining the relevant data in "on" and "off" trees. It was discovered that an "off" tree could possibly be identified by lower levels of boron in date leaves than for an "on" tree in the Bisir stage of development. In this regard, the experimental results revealed that the "on" trees produced boron levels above about 3.5 mg kg-1, and the "off" trees could be characterized by boron levels below this value. In addition, K/B and Ca/B ratios were evaluated as a possible guide to boron toxicity and deficiency. It was found that for normal growth, the magnitude of the K/B ratios for dates, in most cases, fell between 1000 and 2000, and for corresponding leaf specimens between 400 and 2000; and the Ca/B ratios, in most cases, occurred between 700 and 1500 for leaves, and between 150 and 300 for fruit. An interesting observation was that K/B ratios in excess of 2500 were found only in the "off" trees for the leaves in the Kimri stage. The study, therefore, formed an interesting contribution to environmental science in arid regions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-207
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Arid Environments
Volume62
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2005

Fingerprint

alternate bearing
Phoenix dactylifera
boron
leaves
environmental science
fruit
fruiting
fruits
atomic emission spectroscopy
toxicity
soil
atomic absorption spectrometry
dietary minerals
arid region
developmental stage
sampling
arid zones
digestion
cultivar
soil sampling

Keywords

  • Alternate-bearing phenomenon
  • Boron
  • Date palms
  • ICP-AES

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Ecology

Cite this

Pillay, A. E., Williams, J. R., El Mardi, M. O., Hassan, S. M., & Al-Hamdi, A. (2005). Boron and the alternate-bearing phenomenon in the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). Journal of Arid Environments, 62(2), 199-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.11.007

Boron and the alternate-bearing phenomenon in the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). / Pillay, A. E.; Williams, J. R.; El Mardi, M. O.; Hassan, S. M.; Al-Hamdi, A.

In: Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 62, No. 2, 07.2005, p. 199-207.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Pillay, AE, Williams, JR, El Mardi, MO, Hassan, SM & Al-Hamdi, A 2005, 'Boron and the alternate-bearing phenomenon in the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)', Journal of Arid Environments, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 199-207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.11.007
Pillay, A. E. ; Williams, J. R. ; El Mardi, M. O. ; Hassan, S. M. ; Al-Hamdi, A. / Boron and the alternate-bearing phenomenon in the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera). In: Journal of Arid Environments. 2005 ; Vol. 62, No. 2. pp. 199-207.
@article{8b08561540d14c2da9116f373a11774a,
title = "Boron and the alternate-bearing phenomenon in the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)",
abstract = "The distribution of boron (B), in date palms is an area that has not been widely explored and is of considerable interest to environmental science. Boron is known as an essential micronutrient, and of all the metalloids, plays a particularly significant role in plant studies. The thrust of this work, therefore, involved measurement, by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), of boron in dates and corresponding leaf and soil specimens, and evaluation of its toxicity and deficiency during the developmental stages of the fruiting season. Thirty-six date samples and 36 leaf specimens of the Fard cultivar; and 36 corresponding soil samples were collected during the Kimri, Bisir and Rutab stages of the fruiting season and subjected to suitable digestion procedures. Sample masses of typically 1 g (dry weight) were prepared in 25 mL dilute acid solution and investigated for trace levels of boron. Variations in boron concentration were observed in all the analysed samples and studied as a function of the phases of the fruit-bearing season. The boron levels were typically between 3 and 8 mg kg-1 in soil specimens, and 1-6 mg kg-1 in fruits and leaves. A connection was sought to the alternate-bearing phenomenon by examining the relevant data in {"}on{"} and {"}off{"} trees. It was discovered that an {"}off{"} tree could possibly be identified by lower levels of boron in date leaves than for an {"}on{"} tree in the Bisir stage of development. In this regard, the experimental results revealed that the {"}on{"} trees produced boron levels above about 3.5 mg kg-1, and the {"}off{"} trees could be characterized by boron levels below this value. In addition, K/B and Ca/B ratios were evaluated as a possible guide to boron toxicity and deficiency. It was found that for normal growth, the magnitude of the K/B ratios for dates, in most cases, fell between 1000 and 2000, and for corresponding leaf specimens between 400 and 2000; and the Ca/B ratios, in most cases, occurred between 700 and 1500 for leaves, and between 150 and 300 for fruit. An interesting observation was that K/B ratios in excess of 2500 were found only in the {"}off{"} trees for the leaves in the Kimri stage. The study, therefore, formed an interesting contribution to environmental science in arid regions.",
keywords = "Alternate-bearing phenomenon, Boron, Date palms, ICP-AES",
author = "Pillay, {A. E.} and Williams, {J. R.} and {El Mardi}, {M. O.} and Hassan, {S. M.} and A. Al-Hamdi",
year = "2005",
month = "7",
doi = "10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.11.007",
language = "English",
volume = "62",
pages = "199--207",
journal = "Journal of Arid Environments",
issn = "0140-1963",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Boron and the alternate-bearing phenomenon in the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera)

AU - Pillay, A. E.

AU - Williams, J. R.

AU - El Mardi, M. O.

AU - Hassan, S. M.

AU - Al-Hamdi, A.

PY - 2005/7

Y1 - 2005/7

N2 - The distribution of boron (B), in date palms is an area that has not been widely explored and is of considerable interest to environmental science. Boron is known as an essential micronutrient, and of all the metalloids, plays a particularly significant role in plant studies. The thrust of this work, therefore, involved measurement, by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), of boron in dates and corresponding leaf and soil specimens, and evaluation of its toxicity and deficiency during the developmental stages of the fruiting season. Thirty-six date samples and 36 leaf specimens of the Fard cultivar; and 36 corresponding soil samples were collected during the Kimri, Bisir and Rutab stages of the fruiting season and subjected to suitable digestion procedures. Sample masses of typically 1 g (dry weight) were prepared in 25 mL dilute acid solution and investigated for trace levels of boron. Variations in boron concentration were observed in all the analysed samples and studied as a function of the phases of the fruit-bearing season. The boron levels were typically between 3 and 8 mg kg-1 in soil specimens, and 1-6 mg kg-1 in fruits and leaves. A connection was sought to the alternate-bearing phenomenon by examining the relevant data in "on" and "off" trees. It was discovered that an "off" tree could possibly be identified by lower levels of boron in date leaves than for an "on" tree in the Bisir stage of development. In this regard, the experimental results revealed that the "on" trees produced boron levels above about 3.5 mg kg-1, and the "off" trees could be characterized by boron levels below this value. In addition, K/B and Ca/B ratios were evaluated as a possible guide to boron toxicity and deficiency. It was found that for normal growth, the magnitude of the K/B ratios for dates, in most cases, fell between 1000 and 2000, and for corresponding leaf specimens between 400 and 2000; and the Ca/B ratios, in most cases, occurred between 700 and 1500 for leaves, and between 150 and 300 for fruit. An interesting observation was that K/B ratios in excess of 2500 were found only in the "off" trees for the leaves in the Kimri stage. The study, therefore, formed an interesting contribution to environmental science in arid regions.

AB - The distribution of boron (B), in date palms is an area that has not been widely explored and is of considerable interest to environmental science. Boron is known as an essential micronutrient, and of all the metalloids, plays a particularly significant role in plant studies. The thrust of this work, therefore, involved measurement, by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), of boron in dates and corresponding leaf and soil specimens, and evaluation of its toxicity and deficiency during the developmental stages of the fruiting season. Thirty-six date samples and 36 leaf specimens of the Fard cultivar; and 36 corresponding soil samples were collected during the Kimri, Bisir and Rutab stages of the fruiting season and subjected to suitable digestion procedures. Sample masses of typically 1 g (dry weight) were prepared in 25 mL dilute acid solution and investigated for trace levels of boron. Variations in boron concentration were observed in all the analysed samples and studied as a function of the phases of the fruit-bearing season. The boron levels were typically between 3 and 8 mg kg-1 in soil specimens, and 1-6 mg kg-1 in fruits and leaves. A connection was sought to the alternate-bearing phenomenon by examining the relevant data in "on" and "off" trees. It was discovered that an "off" tree could possibly be identified by lower levels of boron in date leaves than for an "on" tree in the Bisir stage of development. In this regard, the experimental results revealed that the "on" trees produced boron levels above about 3.5 mg kg-1, and the "off" trees could be characterized by boron levels below this value. In addition, K/B and Ca/B ratios were evaluated as a possible guide to boron toxicity and deficiency. It was found that for normal growth, the magnitude of the K/B ratios for dates, in most cases, fell between 1000 and 2000, and for corresponding leaf specimens between 400 and 2000; and the Ca/B ratios, in most cases, occurred between 700 and 1500 for leaves, and between 150 and 300 for fruit. An interesting observation was that K/B ratios in excess of 2500 were found only in the "off" trees for the leaves in the Kimri stage. The study, therefore, formed an interesting contribution to environmental science in arid regions.

KW - Alternate-bearing phenomenon

KW - Boron

KW - Date palms

KW - ICP-AES

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=17644365170&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=17644365170&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.11.007

DO - 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2004.11.007

M3 - Article

VL - 62

SP - 199

EP - 207

JO - Journal of Arid Environments

JF - Journal of Arid Environments

SN - 0140-1963

IS - 2

ER -