Beyond the 'East-West' dichotomy

Global variation in cultural models of selfhood

Vivian L. Vignoles, Ellinor Owe, Maja Becker, Peter B. Smith, Matthew J. Easterbrook, Rupert Brown, Roberto González, Nicolas Didier, Diego Carrasco, Maria Paz Cadena, Siugmin Lay, Seth J. Schwartz, Sabrina E. Des Rosiers, Juan A. Villamar, Alin Gavreliuc, Martina Zinkeng, Robert Kreuzbauer, Peter Baguma, Mariana Martin, Alexander Tatarko & 52 others Ginette Herman, Isabelle de Sauvage, Marie Courtois, Ragna B. Gardarsdóttir, Charles Harb, Inge Schweiger Gallo, Paula Prieto Gil, Raquel Lorente Clemares, Gabriella Campara, George Nizharadze, Ma Elizabeth J. Macapagal, Baland Jalal, David Bourguignon, Jianxin Zhang, Shaobo Lv, Aneta Chybicka, Masaki Yuki, Xiao Zhang, Agustín Espinosa, Aune Valk, Sami Abuhamdeh, Benjamin Amponsah, Emre Özgen, E. Ülkü Guner, Nil Yamakoglu, Phatthanakit Chobthamkit, Tom Pyszczynski, Pelin Kesebir, Elvia Vargas Trujillo, Paola Balanta, Boris Cendales Ayala, Silvia H. Koller, Jas Laile Jaafar, Nicolay Gausel, Ronald Fischer, Taciano L. Milfont, Ersin Kusdil, Selinay Çağlar, Said Aldhafri, M. Cristina Ferreira, Kassahun Habtamu Mekonnen, Qian Wang, Márta Fülöp, Ana Torres, Leoncio Camino, Flavia Cristina Silveira Lemos, Immo Fritsche, Bettina Möller, Camillo Regalia, Claudia Manzi, Maria Brambilla, Michael Harris Bond

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

69 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-report measures of independence and interdependence frequently fail to show predicted cultural differences. We revisited the conceptualization and measurement of independent and interdependent self-construals in 2 large-scale multinational surveys, using improved methods for cross-cultural research. We developed (Study 1: N = 2924 students in 16 nations) and validated across cultures (Study 2: N = 7279 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations) a new 7-dimensional model of self-reported ways of being independent or interdependent. Patterns of global variation support some of Markus and Kitayama's predictions, but a simple contrast between independence and interdependence does not adequately capture the diverse models of selfhood that prevail in different world regions. Cultural groups emphasize different ways of being both independent and interdependent, depending on individualism-collectivism, national socioeconomic development, and religious heritage. Our 7-dimensional model will allow future researchers to test more accurately the implications of cultural models of selfhood for psychological processes in diverse ecocultural contexts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)966-1000
Number of pages35
JournalJournal of Experimental Psychology: General
Volume145
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 1 2016

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Psychological Models
Social Psychology
Asian Americans
Research
Self Report
Personality
Research Personnel
Students
Psychology
Developmental Psychology
Surveys and Questionnaires

Keywords

  • Culture
  • Independence-interdependence
  • Self-construals

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Psychology(all)
  • Developmental Neuroscience

Cite this

Vignoles, V. L., Owe, E., Becker, M., Smith, P. B., Easterbrook, M. J., Brown, R., ... Bond, M. H. (2016). Beyond the 'East-West' dichotomy: Global variation in cultural models of selfhood. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 145(8), 966-1000. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000175

Beyond the 'East-West' dichotomy : Global variation in cultural models of selfhood. / Vignoles, Vivian L.; Owe, Ellinor; Becker, Maja; Smith, Peter B.; Easterbrook, Matthew J.; Brown, Rupert; González, Roberto; Didier, Nicolas; Carrasco, Diego; Cadena, Maria Paz; Lay, Siugmin; Schwartz, Seth J.; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E.; Villamar, Juan A.; Gavreliuc, Alin; Zinkeng, Martina; Kreuzbauer, Robert; Baguma, Peter; Martin, Mariana; Tatarko, Alexander; Herman, Ginette; de Sauvage, Isabelle; Courtois, Marie; Gardarsdóttir, Ragna B.; Harb, Charles; Gallo, Inge Schweiger; Gil, Paula Prieto; Clemares, Raquel Lorente; Campara, Gabriella; Nizharadze, George; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J.; Jalal, Baland; Bourguignon, David; Zhang, Jianxin; Lv, Shaobo; Chybicka, Aneta; Yuki, Masaki; Zhang, Xiao; Espinosa, Agustín; Valk, Aune; Abuhamdeh, Sami; Amponsah, Benjamin; Özgen, Emre; Guner, E. Ülkü; Yamakoglu, Nil; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit; Pyszczynski, Tom; Kesebir, Pelin; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas; Balanta, Paola; Ayala, Boris Cendales; Koller, Silvia H.; Jaafar, Jas Laile; Gausel, Nicolay; Fischer, Ronald; Milfont, Taciano L.; Kusdil, Ersin; Çağlar, Selinay; Aldhafri, Said; Ferreira, M. Cristina; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu; Wang, Qian; Fülöp, Márta; Torres, Ana; Camino, Leoncio; Lemos, Flavia Cristina Silveira; Fritsche, Immo; Möller, Bettina; Regalia, Camillo; Manzi, Claudia; Brambilla, Maria; Bond, Michael Harris.

In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Vol. 145, No. 8, 01.08.2016, p. 966-1000.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Vignoles, VL, Owe, E, Becker, M, Smith, PB, Easterbrook, MJ, Brown, R, González, R, Didier, N, Carrasco, D, Cadena, MP, Lay, S, Schwartz, SJ, Des Rosiers, SE, Villamar, JA, Gavreliuc, A, Zinkeng, M, Kreuzbauer, R, Baguma, P, Martin, M, Tatarko, A, Herman, G, de Sauvage, I, Courtois, M, Gardarsdóttir, RB, Harb, C, Gallo, IS, Gil, PP, Clemares, RL, Campara, G, Nizharadze, G, Macapagal, MEJ, Jalal, B, Bourguignon, D, Zhang, J, Lv, S, Chybicka, A, Yuki, M, Zhang, X, Espinosa, A, Valk, A, Abuhamdeh, S, Amponsah, B, Özgen, E, Guner, EÜ, Yamakoglu, N, Chobthamkit, P, Pyszczynski, T, Kesebir, P, Trujillo, EV, Balanta, P, Ayala, BC, Koller, SH, Jaafar, JL, Gausel, N, Fischer, R, Milfont, TL, Kusdil, E, Çağlar, S, Aldhafri, S, Ferreira, MC, Mekonnen, KH, Wang, Q, Fülöp, M, Torres, A, Camino, L, Lemos, FCS, Fritsche, I, Möller, B, Regalia, C, Manzi, C, Brambilla, M & Bond, MH 2016, 'Beyond the 'East-West' dichotomy: Global variation in cultural models of selfhood', Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, vol. 145, no. 8, pp. 966-1000. https://doi.org/10.1037/xge0000175
Vignoles, Vivian L. ; Owe, Ellinor ; Becker, Maja ; Smith, Peter B. ; Easterbrook, Matthew J. ; Brown, Rupert ; González, Roberto ; Didier, Nicolas ; Carrasco, Diego ; Cadena, Maria Paz ; Lay, Siugmin ; Schwartz, Seth J. ; Des Rosiers, Sabrina E. ; Villamar, Juan A. ; Gavreliuc, Alin ; Zinkeng, Martina ; Kreuzbauer, Robert ; Baguma, Peter ; Martin, Mariana ; Tatarko, Alexander ; Herman, Ginette ; de Sauvage, Isabelle ; Courtois, Marie ; Gardarsdóttir, Ragna B. ; Harb, Charles ; Gallo, Inge Schweiger ; Gil, Paula Prieto ; Clemares, Raquel Lorente ; Campara, Gabriella ; Nizharadze, George ; Macapagal, Ma Elizabeth J. ; Jalal, Baland ; Bourguignon, David ; Zhang, Jianxin ; Lv, Shaobo ; Chybicka, Aneta ; Yuki, Masaki ; Zhang, Xiao ; Espinosa, Agustín ; Valk, Aune ; Abuhamdeh, Sami ; Amponsah, Benjamin ; Özgen, Emre ; Guner, E. Ülkü ; Yamakoglu, Nil ; Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit ; Pyszczynski, Tom ; Kesebir, Pelin ; Trujillo, Elvia Vargas ; Balanta, Paola ; Ayala, Boris Cendales ; Koller, Silvia H. ; Jaafar, Jas Laile ; Gausel, Nicolay ; Fischer, Ronald ; Milfont, Taciano L. ; Kusdil, Ersin ; Çağlar, Selinay ; Aldhafri, Said ; Ferreira, M. Cristina ; Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu ; Wang, Qian ; Fülöp, Márta ; Torres, Ana ; Camino, Leoncio ; Lemos, Flavia Cristina Silveira ; Fritsche, Immo ; Möller, Bettina ; Regalia, Camillo ; Manzi, Claudia ; Brambilla, Maria ; Bond, Michael Harris. / Beyond the 'East-West' dichotomy : Global variation in cultural models of selfhood. In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. 2016 ; Vol. 145, No. 8. pp. 966-1000.
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AU - Vignoles, Vivian L.

AU - Owe, Ellinor

AU - Becker, Maja

AU - Smith, Peter B.

AU - Easterbrook, Matthew J.

AU - Brown, Rupert

AU - González, Roberto

AU - Didier, Nicolas

AU - Carrasco, Diego

AU - Cadena, Maria Paz

AU - Lay, Siugmin

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AU - Villamar, Juan A.

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AU - Tatarko, Alexander

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AU - Chobthamkit, Phatthanakit

AU - Pyszczynski, Tom

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AU - Koller, Silvia H.

AU - Jaafar, Jas Laile

AU - Gausel, Nicolay

AU - Fischer, Ronald

AU - Milfont, Taciano L.

AU - Kusdil, Ersin

AU - Çağlar, Selinay

AU - Aldhafri, Said

AU - Ferreira, M. Cristina

AU - Mekonnen, Kassahun Habtamu

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AU - Fülöp, Márta

AU - Torres, Ana

AU - Camino, Leoncio

AU - Lemos, Flavia Cristina Silveira

AU - Fritsche, Immo

AU - Möller, Bettina

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AU - Brambilla, Maria

AU - Bond, Michael Harris

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