Baking soda misuse as a home remedy

Case experience of the California Poison Control System

S. A. Al-Abri, T. Kearney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

What is known and objective Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases involving ingestion and misuse of a baking soda powder product that were reported to the California Poison Control System between the years 2000 and 2012. Results and discussion Of the 192 cases we identified, 55·8% were female, ages ranged 2 months to 79 years, and the most common reasons for misuse included antacid (60·4%), 'beat a urine drug test' (11·5%) and treat a UTI (4·7%). Most cases (55·2%) had significant symptoms warranting a medical evaluation, whereas 12 patients required hospital admission developed either electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory depression. What is new and conclusion Misuse of baking soda can result in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances. Patients at highest risk of toxicity may include those who chronically use an antacid, those who use the method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnant women and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high-risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counseling of patients at risk for use of this product. Those patients at highest risk of toxicity may include: chronic use as an antacid, method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnancy, and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)73-77
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Volume39
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2014

Fingerprint

Sodium Bicarbonate
Poisons
Traditional Medicine
Antacids
Urine
Masks
Health Personnel
Electrolytes
Counseling
Acid-Base Imbalance
Household Products
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Alkalosis
Respiratory Insufficiency
Pregnant Women
Eating
Pregnancy

Keywords

  • antacid
  • baking soda
  • electrolyte imbalance
  • metabolic alkalosis
  • sodium bicarbonate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Baking soda misuse as a home remedy : Case experience of the California Poison Control System. / Al-Abri, S. A.; Kearney, T.

In: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics, Vol. 39, No. 1, 02.2014, p. 73-77.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{e95d1b31feb6448bb11493db4099cb7a,
title = "Baking soda misuse as a home remedy: Case experience of the California Poison Control System",
abstract = "What is known and objective Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases involving ingestion and misuse of a baking soda powder product that were reported to the California Poison Control System between the years 2000 and 2012. Results and discussion Of the 192 cases we identified, 55·8{\%} were female, ages ranged 2 months to 79 years, and the most common reasons for misuse included antacid (60·4{\%}), 'beat a urine drug test' (11·5{\%}) and treat a UTI (4·7{\%}). Most cases (55·2{\%}) had significant symptoms warranting a medical evaluation, whereas 12 patients required hospital admission developed either electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory depression. What is new and conclusion Misuse of baking soda can result in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances. Patients at highest risk of toxicity may include those who chronically use an antacid, those who use the method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnant women and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high-risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counseling of patients at risk for use of this product. Those patients at highest risk of toxicity may include: chronic use as an antacid, method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnancy, and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy.",
keywords = "antacid, baking soda, electrolyte imbalance, metabolic alkalosis, sodium bicarbonate",
author = "Al-Abri, {S. A.} and T. Kearney",
year = "2014",
month = "2",
doi = "10.1111/jcpt.12113",
language = "English",
volume = "39",
pages = "73--77",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics",
issn = "0269-4727",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Baking soda misuse as a home remedy

T2 - Case experience of the California Poison Control System

AU - Al-Abri, S. A.

AU - Kearney, T.

PY - 2014/2

Y1 - 2014/2

N2 - What is known and objective Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases involving ingestion and misuse of a baking soda powder product that were reported to the California Poison Control System between the years 2000 and 2012. Results and discussion Of the 192 cases we identified, 55·8% were female, ages ranged 2 months to 79 years, and the most common reasons for misuse included antacid (60·4%), 'beat a urine drug test' (11·5%) and treat a UTI (4·7%). Most cases (55·2%) had significant symptoms warranting a medical evaluation, whereas 12 patients required hospital admission developed either electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory depression. What is new and conclusion Misuse of baking soda can result in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances. Patients at highest risk of toxicity may include those who chronically use an antacid, those who use the method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnant women and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high-risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counseling of patients at risk for use of this product. Those patients at highest risk of toxicity may include: chronic use as an antacid, method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnancy, and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy.

AB - What is known and objective Baking soda is a common household product promoted by the manufacturer as an antacid. It contains sodium bicarbonate and has the potential for significant toxicity when ingested in excessive amounts. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counselling of patients at risk for use of this product. Methods We conducted a retrospective review of all symptomatic cases involving ingestion and misuse of a baking soda powder product that were reported to the California Poison Control System between the years 2000 and 2012. Results and discussion Of the 192 cases we identified, 55·8% were female, ages ranged 2 months to 79 years, and the most common reasons for misuse included antacid (60·4%), 'beat a urine drug test' (11·5%) and treat a UTI (4·7%). Most cases (55·2%) had significant symptoms warranting a medical evaluation, whereas 12 patients required hospital admission developed either electrolyte imbalances, metabolic alkalosis or respiratory depression. What is new and conclusion Misuse of baking soda can result in serious electrolyte and acid/base imbalances. Patients at highest risk of toxicity may include those who chronically use an antacid, those who use the method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnant women and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high-risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy. Characterizing the patterns and outcomes from the misuse of baking soda as a home remedy can guide the clinical assessment and preventative counseling of patients at risk for use of this product. Those patients at highest risk of toxicity may include: chronic use as an antacid, method to 'beat' urine drug screens, pregnancy, and young children. Self-treatment with baking soda as a home remedy may also mask or delay medical care thereby complicating or exacerbating an existing medical problem. We suggest that healthcare providers counsel high risk patients about the potential complications of misuse of baking soda as a home remedy.

KW - antacid

KW - baking soda

KW - electrolyte imbalance

KW - metabolic alkalosis

KW - sodium bicarbonate

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84891826563&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84891826563&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/jcpt.12113

DO - 10.1111/jcpt.12113

M3 - Article

VL - 39

SP - 73

EP - 77

JO - Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics

JF - Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics

SN - 0269-4727

IS - 1

ER -