In relation to other applied sciences, nanotechnology has a great potential for sustainability of crop production in the era of climate change. In the present chapter, we highlighted that nanomaterials such as nanofertilizers, nanopesticides, nanocarriers, nanosensors, nano-packaging and nano-chips can be potentially used to improve the crop productivity. The use of nanomaterials reduces the amount of sprayed agrochemicals by smart delivery of active ingredients, minimizes nutrient losses in fertilization and increases yields through optimized water and nutrient management. Similarly, nanosensors can increase water, nutrient and chemical use efficiency. Therefore, it is an eco-friendly and economically viable tool. Nanotechnology-led innovations are also being used in plant improvement and genomic transformation programmes. New nanoparticles from biomasses such as highly porous nano-carbon for lignocellulosic fibre jute remarkably add high value to the agricultural produces and processed materials. Therefore, applied research-based potential use of nanotechnology is needed for sustainable crop production systems under the changing climate.