Antibiotic resistant bacteria as bio-indicator of polluted effluent in the green turtles, Chelonia mydas in Oman

Saif N. Al-Bahry*, Ibrahim Y. Mahmoud, Maheera Al-Zadjali, Abdulkader Elshafie, Asila Al-Harthy, Wafaa Al-Alawi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Citations (Scopus)


Antibiotic resistant bacteria were studied as bio-indicators of marine polluted effluents during egg-laying in green turtles. A non-invasive procedure for sampling oviductal fluid was used to test for exposure of turtles to pollution in Ras Al-Hadd, Oman, which is one of the most important nesting beaches in the world. Each sample was obtained by inserting a 15 cm sterile swab gently into the cloacal vent as the sphincter muscle is relaxed and the cloacal lining is unfolded to the outside. Forty turtles were sampled. A hundred and thirty-two species of bacteria from 7 genera were isolated. The dominant isolate was Citrobacter. Among the isolates 60.6% were multiple resistant to 15 tested antibiotics. The dominant resistance to antibiotics was ampicillin followed by streptomycine and sulphamethoxazole. Sampling oviductal fluid for resistant bacteria to antibiotics is valuable way to assess exposure to polluted effluents during feeding and migratory in turtles. Polluted effluents using bacteria as bio-indicator may influence reproductive potential in this endangered species.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)139-144
Number of pages6
JournalMarine Environmental Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Antibiotics
  • Bacteria
  • Bio-indicator
  • Green turtles
  • Oviductal fluid
  • Pollution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Pollution


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