Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the ability of two bioactive compounds, namely, eugenol and linalool, purified from leaves of Ocimum tenuiflorum for eradication of biofilm produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods and Results: The phytoextract of O. tenuiflorum (KT), a common ethno-botanical plant of India, was purified through high-performance liquid chromatography and was analysed using ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eugenol and linalool were found to be the most active amongst all phytocompounds present in phytoextract and showed a significant reduction in the viability of sessile cells of P. aeruginosa and the minimum revival after withdrawal of phyto-challenge. They could bring about notable reduction in the protein and carbohydrate content of exopolysaccharide of biofilm. Eugenol and linalool could affect the synthesis of quorum sensing (QS) proteins like LasA and LasB as well as virulence factors such as pyocyanin, and rhamnolipids, which seriously hamper the formation of biofilm. The biofilm framework was extremely affected by the phytocompounds through the reduction of protein and carbohydrate content of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Another interesting found out was that they brought about maximum inhibition to the genomic DNA and RNA content. The studies were supported by in silico interaction between eugenol and linalool with the QS proteins. The antibiofilm efficacies of eugenol, linalool and phytoextract (KT) were further confirmed by microscopic studies with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy and fluorescence confocal microscopy microscopic studies. Conclusions: The phytocompounds are proved to be more effective than conventional antibiotics in inhibiting the biofilm forming sessile cells and can be used as a replacement for antibiotic. Significance and Impact of the Study: Pure eugenol extracted from common basil leaves can be used as a safe substitute for common antibiotic for treatment of chronic infections caused by P. aeruginosa. It will be cost effective, devoid of notable side effects and will not generate antibiotic resistance in host body.
- Ocimum tenuiflorum
- Pseudomonas aeruginosa
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology