The Middle East and North Africa region is experiencing a widening gap between freshwater supply and demand caused by population and economic growth and climate change. This book addresses water scarcity issues in the MENA region and gives an overview of the current water policies in seven MENA countries: Algeria, Egypt Iran, Jordan, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and Tunisia. This book includes an introductory chapter and seven chapters showcasing water policies in each country. This introductory chapter gives a quantitative representation and description of current available water resources; water demand for industrial, domestic, and agricultural purposes; and water per capita decline over time. The seven chapters provide details on the main challenges faced in each of the countries in the water sector. The chapters address the laws governing water use in the three economic sectors, water supply, water pricing and cost recovery and irrigation efficiency, and technology adoption. The increase of supply from non-conventional resources such as desalination and reuse of treated wastewater is analyzed. The chapters end up discussing how the countries are adapting to climate change and the role of research and innovations.