Material generated during industrial activities that do not have further use in the production process are often categorised as refused industrial byproducts. This paper briefly discusses the utilisation of such refused byproducts in the cement manufacturing process and evaluates their use at different stages of the cement manufacturing process. The evaluation was based on the byproducts’ physicochemical properties without affecting the quality of the final cement product. Dealing with hazards caused by byproduct mismanagement and storage is a tremendous task; however, such production continues to rise. The worldwide diminishment of raw materials offers ample opportunities to replace these materials with refused byproducts. Many refused byproducts remain unexplored even though they might be used in cement production and to develop newer types of cement. Using refused byproducts as alternatives to more traditionally used raw materials will help maintain the world’s ecological balance while contributing to society’s development.
- alternative raw materials
- clinker phase
- environmental hazard
- Refused industrial by-product
ASJC Scopus subject areas