An approach for the online determination of Entrance Surface Air Kerma (ESAK) from Kerma Area product (PKA) in digital radiology

Ibrahim I. Suliman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


We propose determining the entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) from the kerma area product (PKA) in digital radiology. ESAK values were derived from the X-ray tube outputs and patient exposure factors across five X-ray departments. Using linear regression between ESAK and PKA values, the slope and intercept coefficients were determined for each X-ray equipment and procedure. The method was examined using the data collected from patients who underwent chest PA/LAT, abdomen, pelvic AP, and lumbar spine AP/LAT X-ray examinations. The results showed a highly significant correlation between ESAK and PKA values and correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.77 to 1 with P-value < 0.001 in most studies. This method can be employed by incorporating dose data and related parameters into the X-ray device’s software, similar to other dose-displayed information. The online determination of ESAK from PKA could help with quality assurance and patient dose management in digital radiology.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPhysical and Engineering Sciences in Medicine
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM)
  • Digital radiology
  • Dose display
  • Patient dose
  • Radiation measurements

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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