This study proposed and tested a model of mathematics achievement and its relations to antecedent and subsequent factors using structural equations modeling. A sample of elementary school students in Al-Ain school district (n = 394) completed an Arabic version of the Self-description Questionnaire as well as a questionnaire measuring their perception of the importance of mathematics, anxiety about it, and the amount of effort they exerted in studying. Mathematics grades were obtained from the official school records. Importance and effort were positively related to achievement which in turn had a positive path coefficient to self-concept and a negative path to anxiety. The hypothesized model explained 40%, 64%, and 73% of the variance in achievement, self-concept, and anxiety, respectively. The results can be interpreted as indicating that achievement is an important outcome and antecedent construct within the proposed model.
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