A solid-state sensor based on tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)/ poly(4-aminodiphenylamine) modified electrode: Characterization and applications

Emad A. Khudaish, Mohammed M. Al-Hinaai, Salim H. Al-Harthi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)


A solid-state sensor based on poly(4-aminodiphenylamine) film deposited at glassy carbon electrode doped with tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)Ru(II) complex (Padpa/Ru/GCE) was constructed electrochemically. The surface morphology of the film modified electrode was characterized using electrochemical and surface scanning techniques. A redox property represented by [Ru(bpy)3] 3+/2+ couple immobilized at the Padpa moiety was characterized using typical voltammetric techniques. The XPS data demonstrated the existence of (N) bonding responsible for polymer formation while the degree of polymerization is reduced by the presence of components containing chloride ions, specifically (NH3 +Cl-) which is expected to rule the linkage of Padpa with Ru-complexes. The AFM image reveals a broken and fused Padpa/Ru fiber structure compared to a relatively uniform Padpa film. Parameters such as electron transfer coefficient, surface concentration, roughness and energy dissipation were estimated. Primarily, the modified electrode was applied as an environmental sensor for the simultaneous determination of Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+ and Cu2+ ions in water samples. The detection limits for these metal ions were dropped to 122.5, 21.7, 9.8 and 28.0 ppb, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)478-487
Number of pages10
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
Publication statusPublished - 2013



  • 4-Aminodiphenylamine
  • Electropolymerization
  • Heavy metals
  • Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Instrumentation
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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