A novel phosphonium-based deep eutectic catalyst for biodiesel production from industrial low grade crude palm oil

Adeeb Hayyan, Mohd Ali Hashim, Farouq S. Mjalli, Maan Hayyan, Inas M. AlNashef

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

74 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study explores the possibility of producing low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO)-based biodiesel using a two-stage process in which a phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvent (P-DES) and an alkali are used as catalysts. The pre-treatment of LGCPO was conducted using a P-DES composed of a hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) and a salt (i.e. allyltriphenylphosphonium bromide) as a novel recyclable catalyst. The P-DES was used in different dosages in the presence of methanol to reduce the level of free fatty acids (FFA) to the acceptable limit for alkaline transesterification reaction. Batch pre-treatment of LGCPO was carried out to study the influence of P-DES dosage (from 0.25 to 3.5%. wt/wt). The effects of other operating parameters such as molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time on FFA content reduction, yield of treated LGCPO and FFA to FAME conversion were studied. The P-DES showed high catalytic activity in the pre-treatment of LGCPO. The lab scale investigation proved the viability of esterification and transesterification of oil using P-DES and alkaline catalysts. The biodiesel produced from LGCPO meets the international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214). Three to four times recycling runs of P-DES were achieved without losing its activity. This study introduces a new generation of catalysts for possible batch esterification reaction using P-DES followed by an alkaline transesterification reaction. This study will open a new field for utilizing this strong acid-based DES catalyst for many chemical reactions and industrial applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)81-88
Number of pages8
JournalChemical Engineering Science
Volume92
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 5 2013

Fingerprint

Palm oil
Biofuels
Biodiesel
Catalyst
Eutectics
Catalysts
Transesterification
Fatty Acids
Fatty acids
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Esterification
Batch
Hydrogen Bonds
Acids
palm oil
Reaction Time
Recycling
Alkalies
Industrial Application
Bromides

Keywords

  • Biodiesel
  • Catalysis
  • Chemical process
  • Deep eutectic solvents
  • Esterification reaction
  • Low grade crude palm oil

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

Cite this

A novel phosphonium-based deep eutectic catalyst for biodiesel production from industrial low grade crude palm oil. / Hayyan, Adeeb; Ali Hashim, Mohd; Mjalli, Farouq S.; Hayyan, Maan; AlNashef, Inas M.

In: Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 92, 05.04.2013, p. 81-88.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5b0fcf5f82554245a8f1348045d26426,
title = "A novel phosphonium-based deep eutectic catalyst for biodiesel production from industrial low grade crude palm oil",
abstract = "This study explores the possibility of producing low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO)-based biodiesel using a two-stage process in which a phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvent (P-DES) and an alkali are used as catalysts. The pre-treatment of LGCPO was conducted using a P-DES composed of a hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) and a salt (i.e. allyltriphenylphosphonium bromide) as a novel recyclable catalyst. The P-DES was used in different dosages in the presence of methanol to reduce the level of free fatty acids (FFA) to the acceptable limit for alkaline transesterification reaction. Batch pre-treatment of LGCPO was carried out to study the influence of P-DES dosage (from 0.25 to 3.5{\%}. wt/wt). The effects of other operating parameters such as molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time on FFA content reduction, yield of treated LGCPO and FFA to FAME conversion were studied. The P-DES showed high catalytic activity in the pre-treatment of LGCPO. The lab scale investigation proved the viability of esterification and transesterification of oil using P-DES and alkaline catalysts. The biodiesel produced from LGCPO meets the international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214). Three to four times recycling runs of P-DES were achieved without losing its activity. This study introduces a new generation of catalysts for possible batch esterification reaction using P-DES followed by an alkaline transesterification reaction. This study will open a new field for utilizing this strong acid-based DES catalyst for many chemical reactions and industrial applications.",
keywords = "Biodiesel, Catalysis, Chemical process, Deep eutectic solvents, Esterification reaction, Low grade crude palm oil",
author = "Adeeb Hayyan and {Ali Hashim}, Mohd and Mjalli, {Farouq S.} and Maan Hayyan and AlNashef, {Inas M.}",
year = "2013",
month = "4",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1016/j.ces.2012.12.024",
language = "English",
volume = "92",
pages = "81--88",
journal = "Chemical Engineering Science",
issn = "0009-2509",
publisher = "Elsevier BV",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A novel phosphonium-based deep eutectic catalyst for biodiesel production from industrial low grade crude palm oil

AU - Hayyan, Adeeb

AU - Ali Hashim, Mohd

AU - Mjalli, Farouq S.

AU - Hayyan, Maan

AU - AlNashef, Inas M.

PY - 2013/4/5

Y1 - 2013/4/5

N2 - This study explores the possibility of producing low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO)-based biodiesel using a two-stage process in which a phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvent (P-DES) and an alkali are used as catalysts. The pre-treatment of LGCPO was conducted using a P-DES composed of a hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) and a salt (i.e. allyltriphenylphosphonium bromide) as a novel recyclable catalyst. The P-DES was used in different dosages in the presence of methanol to reduce the level of free fatty acids (FFA) to the acceptable limit for alkaline transesterification reaction. Batch pre-treatment of LGCPO was carried out to study the influence of P-DES dosage (from 0.25 to 3.5%. wt/wt). The effects of other operating parameters such as molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time on FFA content reduction, yield of treated LGCPO and FFA to FAME conversion were studied. The P-DES showed high catalytic activity in the pre-treatment of LGCPO. The lab scale investigation proved the viability of esterification and transesterification of oil using P-DES and alkaline catalysts. The biodiesel produced from LGCPO meets the international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214). Three to four times recycling runs of P-DES were achieved without losing its activity. This study introduces a new generation of catalysts for possible batch esterification reaction using P-DES followed by an alkaline transesterification reaction. This study will open a new field for utilizing this strong acid-based DES catalyst for many chemical reactions and industrial applications.

AB - This study explores the possibility of producing low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO)-based biodiesel using a two-stage process in which a phosphonium-based deep eutectic solvent (P-DES) and an alkali are used as catalysts. The pre-treatment of LGCPO was conducted using a P-DES composed of a hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) and a salt (i.e. allyltriphenylphosphonium bromide) as a novel recyclable catalyst. The P-DES was used in different dosages in the presence of methanol to reduce the level of free fatty acids (FFA) to the acceptable limit for alkaline transesterification reaction. Batch pre-treatment of LGCPO was carried out to study the influence of P-DES dosage (from 0.25 to 3.5%. wt/wt). The effects of other operating parameters such as molar ratio, reaction temperature and reaction time on FFA content reduction, yield of treated LGCPO and FFA to FAME conversion were studied. The P-DES showed high catalytic activity in the pre-treatment of LGCPO. The lab scale investigation proved the viability of esterification and transesterification of oil using P-DES and alkaline catalysts. The biodiesel produced from LGCPO meets the international standards (ASTM D6751 and EN 14214). Three to four times recycling runs of P-DES were achieved without losing its activity. This study introduces a new generation of catalysts for possible batch esterification reaction using P-DES followed by an alkaline transesterification reaction. This study will open a new field for utilizing this strong acid-based DES catalyst for many chemical reactions and industrial applications.

KW - Biodiesel

KW - Catalysis

KW - Chemical process

KW - Deep eutectic solvents

KW - Esterification reaction

KW - Low grade crude palm oil

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84873962607&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84873962607&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.ces.2012.12.024

DO - 10.1016/j.ces.2012.12.024

M3 - Article

VL - 92

SP - 81

EP - 88

JO - Chemical Engineering Science

JF - Chemical Engineering Science

SN - 0009-2509

ER -