A novel ammonium based eutectic solvent for the treatment of free fatty acid and synthesis of biodiesel fuel

Adeeb Hayyan, Mohd Ali Hashim, Maan Hayyan, Farouq S. Mjalli, Inas M. AlNashef

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this work, low grade crude palm oil (LGCPO) with high free fatty acids (FFA) content is introduced as a possible biodiesel production feedstock alternative. The pre-treatment of LGCPO was conducted using ammonium-based deep eutectic solvent which consisted of hydrogen bond donor (i.e. p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate) (PTSA) and salt (i.e. N,N-diethylenethanol ammonium chloride) as a novel recyclable catalyst (DEAC-DES). The DEAC-DES was used in different dosages to reduce the level of FFA to the acceptable limit for biodiesel production. The esterification reaction was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying reaction operating conditions on the reduction of FFA content. The FFA content of LGCPO was reduced from 9.5% to less than 1% using optimum conditions. Four recycling runs of the DEAC-DES were achieved. The conversion of PTSA to deep eutectic solvent improved the recyclability of the acid and the physical properties such as the elimination of acid hygroscopicity. The LGCPO biodiesel fulfilled the international standards. This study demonstrates a potential route for biodiesel production from abundance LGCPO using DEAC-DES and an alkaline catalyst.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)392-398
Number of pages7
JournalIndustrial Crops and Products
Volume46
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2013

Fingerprint

palm oils
biodiesel
free fatty acids
synthesis
acids
fatty acid composition
catalysts
ammonium chloride
esterification
feedstocks
hydrogen
recycling
physical properties
pretreatment
salts
dosage

Keywords

  • Biodiesel
  • Crude palm oil
  • Deep eutectic solvent
  • Esterification
  • N,N-diethylenethanol ammonium chloride
  • Transesterification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agronomy and Crop Science

Cite this

A novel ammonium based eutectic solvent for the treatment of free fatty acid and synthesis of biodiesel fuel. / Hayyan, Adeeb; Hashim, Mohd Ali; Hayyan, Maan; Mjalli, Farouq S.; AlNashef, Inas M.

In: Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 46, 04.2013, p. 392-398.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hayyan, Adeeb ; Hashim, Mohd Ali ; Hayyan, Maan ; Mjalli, Farouq S. ; AlNashef, Inas M. / A novel ammonium based eutectic solvent for the treatment of free fatty acid and synthesis of biodiesel fuel. In: Industrial Crops and Products. 2013 ; Vol. 46. pp. 392-398.
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