The role of the innate immune response in detecting RNA viruses is crucial for the establishment of proper inflammatory and antiviral responses. Different receptors, known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are present in the cytoplasm, endosomes, and on the cellular surface. These receptors have the capacity to sense the presence of viral nucleic acids as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This recognition leads to the induction of type 1 interferons (IFNs) as well as inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In this review, we provide an overview of the significant involvement of cellular RNA helicases and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3, 7, and 8 in antiviral immune defenses.
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