Objective: This is a hospital-based, prospective clinical study to determine the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of extreme low birth weight and very low birth weight pre-term babies with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman. Methods: All babies with a birth weight=/ <1500 g and gestational age =/< 32 weeks admitted in the Neonatal Unit, were screened for ROP between 4 to 6 weeks of age and staged according to the international classification and were followed up until complete vascularization of the retina. Fifty nine babies formed the study group. Results: The overall incidence of ROP was 25.4% (15 out of 59), of which 6 babies had severe ROP and underwent cryotherapy/laser. All babies with ROP had a birth weight <1250 g and were born before 31 weeks of gestation. Conclusion: ROP is a multifactorial disease, the immature retina of the pre-term baby being the primary factor. Incidence and severity was inversely proportional to birth weight and gestational age. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that sepsis and total parenteral nutrition to be highly significant risk factors. Repeated blood transfusions, hypotension and congenital heart disease with left to right shunt were seen to be considerably associated with the development of ROP. A decrease in overall incidence and severity of ROP was observed in this study.
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