TY - JOUR

T1 - Numerical Simulations of Hydromagnetic Mixed Convection Flow of Nanofluids inside a Triangular Cavity on the Basis of a Two-Component Nonhomogeneous Mathematical Model

AU - Al-Hassani, Khadija A.

AU - Alam, M. S.

AU - Rahman, M. M.

N1 - Funding Information:
Acknowledgement: M. M. Rahman is grateful to the Sultan Qaboos University for the internal research grant.
Funding Information:
Funding Statement: This work was supported by IG/SCI/MATH/20/03.
Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

PY - 2021

Y1 - 2021

N2 - Nanofluids have enjoyed a widespread use in many technological applications due to their peculiar properties. Numerical simulations are presented about the unsteady behavior of mixed convection of Fe3O4-water, Fe3O4-kerosene, Fe3O4-ethylene glycol, and Fe3O4-engine oil nanofluids inside a lid-driven triangular cavity. In particular, a two-component non-homogeneous nanofluid model is used. The bottom wall of the enclosure is insulated, whereas the inclined wall is kept a constant (cold) temperature and various temperature laws are assumed for the vertical wall, namely: θ = 1(Case 1), θ = Y(1 - Y) (Case 2), and θ = sin(2πY)(Case 3). A tilted magnetic field of uniform strength is also present in the fluid domain. From a numerical point of view, the problem is addressed using the Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. The role played by different parameters is assessed, discussed critically and interpreted from a physical standpoint. We find that a higher aspect ratio can produce an increase in the average Nusselt number. Moreover, the Fe3O4-EO and Fe3O4-H2O nanofluids provide the highest and smallest rate of heat transfer, respectively, for all the considered (three variants of) thermal boundary conditions.

AB - Nanofluids have enjoyed a widespread use in many technological applications due to their peculiar properties. Numerical simulations are presented about the unsteady behavior of mixed convection of Fe3O4-water, Fe3O4-kerosene, Fe3O4-ethylene glycol, and Fe3O4-engine oil nanofluids inside a lid-driven triangular cavity. In particular, a two-component non-homogeneous nanofluid model is used. The bottom wall of the enclosure is insulated, whereas the inclined wall is kept a constant (cold) temperature and various temperature laws are assumed for the vertical wall, namely: θ = 1(Case 1), θ = Y(1 - Y) (Case 2), and θ = sin(2πY)(Case 3). A tilted magnetic field of uniform strength is also present in the fluid domain. From a numerical point of view, the problem is addressed using the Galerkin weighted residual finite element method. The role played by different parameters is assessed, discussed critically and interpreted from a physical standpoint. We find that a higher aspect ratio can produce an increase in the average Nusselt number. Moreover, the Fe3O4-EO and Fe3O4-H2O nanofluids provide the highest and smallest rate of heat transfer, respectively, for all the considered (three variants of) thermal boundary conditions.

KW - Nanofluid

KW - finite element method

KW - lid-driven

KW - mixed convection

KW - triangular cavity

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U2 - 10.32604/fdmp.2021.013497

DO - 10.32604/fdmp.2021.013497

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85102347398

SN - 1555-256X

VL - 17

SP - 1

EP - 20

JO - Fluid Dynamics and Materials Processing

JF - Fluid Dynamics and Materials Processing

IS - 1

ER -