Current evidence suggests that intrauterine bisphenol A (BPA) exposure increases the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases in later stages of life. The beneficial effect of resveratrol (Rsv) on developmental programming of atherosclerosis lesions formation in offspring is seldom reported. Hence, we sought to study the effect of maternal Rsv in ameliorating perinatal BPA exposure-induced atherosclerosis lesions formation in adult offspring using the apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE −/−) mice model. The pregnant ApoE −/− mice were allocated into three groups: control, BPA, BPA + resveratrol (BPA + Rsv). The BPA group mice received BPA in their drinking water (1 μg/ml). BPA + Rsv group mice received BPA in their drinking water (1 μg/ml) and were treated orally with Rsv (20 mg kg −1 day −1). All the treatments were continued throughout the gestation and lactation period. Quantitative analysis of Sudan IV-stained aorta revealed a significantly increased area of atherosclerotic lesions in both female (p < 0.01) and male adult offspring mice (p < 0.01) in the BPA group. Supplementation with Rsv significantly reduced the BPA-induced atherosclerotic lesion development in the female offspring mice (p < 0.05). Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of a significantly high incidence of autophagic endothelial, smooth muscle, and macrophage cells in the aorta of BPA-exposed mice. Rsv treatment reduced the incidence of autophagic cells in BPA-exposed mice. In conclusion, maternal Rsv supplementation significantly prevents the BPA-induced atherosclerotic lesions formation in a sex-dependent manner potentially by acting as an autophagy modulator.
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