Chemotherapy is an aggressive form of chemical drug therapy aiming to destroy cancer cells. Adjuvant therapy may reduce hazards of chemotherapy and help in destroying these cells when obtained from natural products, such as medical plants. In this study, the potential therapeutic effect of Rosa damascena callus crude extract produced in vitamin-enhanced media is investigated on colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2. Two elicitors, i.e., L-ascorbic acid and citric acid at a concentration of 0.5 g/L were added to the callus induction medium. Callus extraction and the GC–MS analysis of methanolic crude extracts were also determined. Cytotoxicity, clonogenicity, proliferation and migration of Caco-2 colorectal cancer cells were investigated using MTT cytotoxicity, colony-forming, Ki-67 flow cytometry proliferation and Migration Scratch assays, respectively. Our results indicated that L-ascorbic acid treatment enhanced callus growth parameters and improved secondary metabolite contents. It showed the least IC50 value of 137 ug/mL compared to 237 ug/mL and 180 ug/mL in the citric acid-treated and control group. We can conclude that R. damascena callus elicited by L-ascorbic acid improved growth and secondary metabolite contents as well as having an efficient antiproliferative, anti-clonogenic and anti-migratory effect on Caco-2 cancer cells, thus, can be used as an adjuvant anti-cancer therapy.
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