Over the past decade, population growth and industry expansion in Oman have led to an increase in electricity demand of more than 240%. The main challenges of utilising renewable energy resources in Oman include high capital costs and their intermittent nature. Enhancing the integration of renewable energy sources from wind and solar into the conventional power network requires the mitigation of vulnerabilities posed to the network owing to the intermittent nature of these sources. One possible solution for such a problem is to utilise large-scale energy storage such as pumped-hydroelectric, compressed air, or Hydrogen storage. This paper aims to review energy storage options for the Main Interconnected System (MIS) in Oman. In addition, it presents a techno-economic case study on utilising pumped hydro energy storage (PHES) facilities to supply peak demand. Abbreviations: CAES: Compressed Air Energy Storage; CAPEX: Capital Expenditure or Construction Cost; CCGT: Combined Cycle Gas Turbine; CCS: Carbon Capture and Storage; CF: Capacity Factor; CO2: Carbon Dioxide; COE: Costs of Energy; CRT: Cost-Reflective Tariff; DPS Dhofar Power System; GHG: Greenhouse Gas; IRR: Internal Rate Of Return; MIS: The Main Interconnected System; OCGT: Open Cycle Gas Turbine; OETC: Oman Electricity Transmission Company; OPEX: Operation Expenditure or Running Cost; OPWP: Oman Power and Water Procurement Company; PHES: Pumped Hydro Energy Storage; PPA: Power Purchase Agreement; RAEC: Rural Areas Electricity Company; SMES: Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage.
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