Manufacturing is a major source of energy consumption and, therefore, a significant contributor to emissions and greenhouse gases. This paper is concerned with evaluating different scheduling policies in a job shop system where energy-efficient scheduling is incorporated with multiple other scheduling criteria. In the production systems being investigated, the electrical energy is offered on a time-of-use (TOU) pricing regime. The objective of minimizing TOU energy costs conflicts sharply with most other traditional objectives in production scheduling. The aim is to identify best performing scheduling rules for different scenarios based on different shop congestion levels, and devise new rules to enable an improved integration of energy cost with other scheduling criteria. A ranking approach based on data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Ordered Weighting Average (OWA) concepts is presented. The proposed methodology exploits the preference voting system embedded under the cross-efficiency (CE) matrix to derive a collective importance scale for the aggregation process. The approach is applied to 28 dispatching rules (DRs) for scheduling jobs that arrive continuously at random points in time during the production horizon. Computational results highlight the effect of energy costs on the overall ranking of the DRs, and unveil the superiority of certain rules under multi-objective performance criteria.
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