Canagliflozin is a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor that is currently available for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study investigated the effect of canagliflozin on cisplatin (CP)-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. The animals were divided into four groups (n = 6). The first and second groups received normal saline (control) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) cisplatin (20 mg/kg) on day 7, respectively. The third and fourth groups were given a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CP (20 mg/kg) on day 7 and canagliflozin (10 mg/kg/day) and (30 mg/kg/day), for 10 days, respectively. At day 11, animals were anesthetized and blood collected and kidneys were removed. CP significantly increased the plasma urea, creatinine, cystatin C, and clusterin concentrations and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) activity. In addition, CP increased urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity, and liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) concentrations and reduced creatinine clearance. CP also significantly increased the plasma concentration of inflammatory cytokines [plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β)] and significantly reduced antioxidant indices [catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), and superoxide dismutase (SOD)]. Histopathologically, CP caused a remarkable renal damage compared with control. Canagliflozin significantly ameliorated CP-induced biochemical and histopathological changes. The protective effect of canagliflozin is most likely due to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Our results show that administration of canagliflozin reversed the biochemical and histopathological indices of CP-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.
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