Infective endocarditis (IE) is an uncommon but life-threatening infection. Despite advances in management, it still causes high morbidity and mortality. We report the case of an 8-year-old girl who presented with a prolonged fever of 2.5 months duration and a history of a small perimembranous ventricular septal defect. She was diagnosed with subacute bacterial endocarditis secondary to Streptococcus mutans. The patient developed a septic pulmonary embolism; however, with the use of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, she made an uneventful recovery. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for IE as the possible cause of a prolonged fever, especially in the presence of congenital heart disease (CHD). Currently, IE prophylaxis is not indicated for unrepaired acyanotic CHD. Nevertheless, with the new changes in the guidelines, more prospective studies are needed to investigate the incidence of IE in such lesions, before long-term conclusions can be drawn.
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