Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare autosomal recessive lethal condition characterized by fever, cytopenia, hepatosplenomegaly and hemophagocytosis. The hallmark of FHL is defect apoptosis triggering and lymphocyte cellular cytotoxicity. Thus far three disease-causing genes (PRF1, UNC13D, STX11) have been identified. We performed a genotype-phenotype study in a large, multi-ethnic cohort of 76 FHL patients originating from 65 unrelated families. Biallelic mutations in PRF1, UNC13D and STX11 were demonstrated in 13/74 (18%), 6/61 (10%) and 14/70 (20%) patients, respectively. In 27/60 (45%) patients analyzed for all three genes, no molecular diagnosis was established. STX11 mutations were most common in Turkish families (7/28, 25%), whereas in Middle East families, PRF1 mutations were most frequent (6/13, 46%). No biallelic mutation was identified in most families of Nordic origin (13/14, 93%). Patients carrying PRF1 mutations had higher risk of early onset (age <6 months) compared to patients carrying STX11 mutations [adjusted odds ratio 8.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-56.40), P = 0.032]. Moreover, patients without identified mutations had increased risk of pathological cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at diagnosis compared to patients with STX11 mutations [adjusted odds ratio 26.37 (CI = 1.90-366.82), P = 0.015]. These results indicate that the disease-causing mutations in FHL have different phenotypes with regard to ethnic origin, age at onset, and pathological CSF at diagnosis.
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