Transmission and subtransmission lines in smart grid systems are designed as multitapped lines to supply loads or integrate wind or solar farms as medium-sized generation technologies. Transmission lines with multiple taps are an economical solution to prevent building new substations. However, these types of tapped lines create operational and protection challenges. When renewable resources are added to feeders, they act as transmission lines where energy flows in either direction in protection relays. Then, fault current flows in different directions and the coordination protection for this configuration fails. Modern protection schemes based on standalone decisions are not suitable in such cases, and new system protection methods should be devised. A key factor for future energy supply is information and communication technology based on the Internet of Energy (IoE), which is utilized to exchange information among all measurements on transmission and subtransmission systems in an environmental domain for accurate unit protection and the optimization of the coordination process. This information is collected by employing integrated electronic devices (IEDs). In such cases, the data measured by IEDs and exchanged in the environmental domain using IoE can achieve accurate unit protection for optimizing the coordination process. This system is a new development in the protection field using informatics; it is named i-protection. i-protection provides a novel method of accurately detecting faults using IEDs and IoE through wide-area wireless networks such as the IEEE 802.16 WiMAX technology. This is the first study to apply i-protection for protecting complex configurations with multiple taps at two different levels, i.e., transmission and subtransmission. The protection method considers the studied power system as one zone rather than multiple separate protection zones, which are used by conventional protection. The results show that the proposed protection method can successfully detect all types of faults in complex multitapped transmission lines with renewable resources. Moreover, the initial results indicate that the IEEE 802.16 network can meet the latency requirement of the proposed protection scheme.
ASJC Scopus subject areas