Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health challenge, with a reported prevalence of around 10%. Prescribing for patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) is challenging and complicated by polypharmacy, comorbidities, and changes in clearance of medications. The aim of this study was to evaluate antibiotics utilization patterns and dosage appropriateness in patients receiving HD at a tertiary hospital. A retrospective study was carried on 287 adult inpatients, who received HD and at least one antibiotic in a tertiary hospital in Oman. Data were extracted using the hospital's electronic patient information system. Dosage appropriateness was assessed by identifying the dosage and frequency of prescribed antibiotics and comparing them with international guidelines. The main outcome measures were antibiotics utilization patterns and dosing inappropriateness. The most commonly prescribed parenteral antibiotic was piperacillin + tazobactam (20%), while the most common prescribed oral antibiotic was azithromycin (41.7%). For prophylaxis, cefazolin (54.6%) was the main antibiotic prescribed. The most commonly used antibiotic for external use was mupirocin ointment (38.5%). The overall dosing inappropriateness was 29.5%. Vancomycin was the most common parenteral antibiotic subjected to dosing inappropriateness (19.8%). However, trimethoprim + sulfamethoxazole was more inappropriately prescribed among the oral route (28.6%). In conclusion, the most utilized antibiotic was piperacillin + tazobactam followed by vancomycin. The study reported some inappropriate dosing of antibiotics. Such a study opens the door for the establishment of local guidelines for the improved practice of antibiotics use in HD patients.
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