OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in women, and is often associated with drug resistance. Therefore, finding effective drugs, including naturally derived compounds, is urgently needed. Herein, we aimed to test the anti-cancer potential of gallic acid monohydrate (GA) and its congeners on cisplatin-sensitive (A2780S), and resistant (A2780CP) ovarian cancer and normal ovarian (HOSE6-3) cell lines. METHODS: Cytotoxicity was assessed by AlamarBlue and CCK08 assays by exposing cells to different concentrations of cisplatin (0-21µg/mL), GA and its congeners (0-100µg/mL), and a combination of GA and cisplatin. Apoptosis was estimated by Hoechst stain and monitoring the relative RNA expression of the apoptotic effector caspase-3 using qRT-PCR. RESULTS: GA decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner in all cell lines, with an IC50 of 19.39µg/mL (A2780S), 35.59 µg/mL (A2780CP), and 49.32µg/mL (HOSE6-3). GA displayed higher cytotoxicity than its congeners. An apoptotic rate estimation of approximately 20% and 30% was obtained in A2780S and A2780CP. While the cytotoxicity observed with cisplatin and GA was comparable, combining the two enhanced the cytotoxicity significantly, especially in the A2780CP cell line (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that GA may help overcome the resistance. Hence, the cytotoxic effects of GA, especially on chemo-resistant ovarian cancer cells merit further investigation.
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