Flood management in a reservoir-outlet system is a multi-criterion decision-making (MCDM) issue, in which preventing flood damage and flood overtopping, as well as fulfilling water demands, are often considered essential practices. However, although MCDM models can be used for flood control, there is a knowledge gap in hybrid modeling of the reservoirs and their outlets based on a coupled MCDM and optimization model during the flood. In this paper, an MCDM-optimization model was presented for reservoir systems' optimal designs in flood conditions based on a robust optimization technique, namely multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO), applying a powerful MCDM tool, so-called complex proportional assessment (COPRAS) for the first time in the literature, considering the weights generated by Shannon Entropy method. The objectives of this optimization model were defined based on the non-linear interval number programming (NINP) technique to optimize the orifice and triangular, rectangular, and proportional weirs specifications. This methodology was applied to a practical reservoir MCDM optimization problem in flood conditions to demonstrate its applicability and efficiency. Results indicated that the proposed framework could successfully and effectually provide the reservoirs and outlets with superior optimal design.
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