In this study, a general framework is proposed that combines the distinctive features of three well-known approaches: the adaptive memory programming, the simulated annealing, and the tabu search methods. Four variants of a heuristic based on this framework are developed and presented. The performance of the proposed methods is evaluated and compared with a conventional simulated annealing approach using benchmark problems for job shop scheduling. The unique feature of the proposed framework is the use of two short-term memories. The first memory temporarily prevents further changes in the configuration of a provisional solution by maintaining the presence of good elements of such solutions. The purpose of the second memory is to keep track of good solutions found during an iteration, so that the best of these can be used as the starting point in a subsequent iteration. Our computational results for the job shop scheduling problem clearly indicate that the proposed methods significantly outperform the conventional simulated annealing.
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